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Confucianism
儒 家

Di Zi Gui-- Standards for being a good student and child

At Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents

弟子規入則孝

Co-1

When your parents call you, answer them right away.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

父母呼。應勿緩。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-2

When your parents command you to do something, do it quickly.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

父母命。行勿懶。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-3

When your parents instruct you, listen respectfully.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

父母教。敬聽。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-4

When your parents reproach you, obey and accept their scolding; try hard to change and improve yourself and start anew. 

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

父母責。順承。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-5

In the winter, keep your parents warm.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

冬則溫

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-6

In the summer, keep your parents cool.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

夏則凊

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-7

Greet your parents in the morning to show them that you care.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

晨則省

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-8

At night be sure that your parents rest well.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

昏則定

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-9

Before going out, tell your parents where you are going, for parents are always concerned about their children.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

出必告

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-10

After returning home, go and see your parents to let them know you are back, so they do not worry about you.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

反必面

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-11

Have a permanent place to stay and lead a routine life.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

居有常

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-12

Persist in whatever you do and do not change your aspirations at will.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

業無變

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-13

Although a matter may be considered trivial, but if it is wrong to do it or unfair to the other person, do not do it thinking it will bear little or no consequence. If you do, you are not being a dutiful child because parents do not want to see their child doing things that are irrational or illegal.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

事雖小。勿擅為。茍擅為。子道虧。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-14

Even though an object may be small, do not hoard it. If you do, your parents will be heartbroken.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

物雖小。勿私藏。茍私藏。親心傷。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-15

If whatever pleases your parents is fair and reasonable, try your best to get it for them.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親所好。力為具。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-16

Should something displease your parents, if within reason, cautiously keep it away from them.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親所惡。謹為去。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-17

When your body is hurt, your parents will be worried.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

身有傷。貽親憂。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-18

If your virtues are compromised, your parents will feel ashamed.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

德有傷。貽親羞。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-19

When you have loving parents, it is not difficult to be a dutiful child.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親愛我。孝何難。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-20

If you are still dutiful to parents who hate you, only then will it meet the standards of the saints and sages for being a dutiful child.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親憎我。孝方賢。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-21

When your parents do wrong, urge them to change. Do it with a kind facial expression and a warm gentle voice. If you do not accept your advice, wait until they are in a happier mood before you dissuade them again, followed by crying to make them understand why. If they end up whipping you do not hold a grudge against them.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親有過。諫使更。怡吾色。柔吾聲。諫不入。悅復諫。號泣隨。撻無怨。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-22

When your parents are ill, taste the medicine first before giving to them. Take care of them night and day; do not leave their bedside.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

親有疾。藥先嘗。晝夜侍。不離床。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-23

During the first three years of mourning after they passed away, remember them with gratitude and feel sad often for not being able to repay them for their kindness in raising you. During this period you should arrange your home to reflect your grief and sorrow. Avoid festivities and indulgence in food and alcoholic drinks.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

喪三年。常悲咽。居處變。酒肉絕。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Co-24

Observe the proper etiquette in arranging their funerals. Hold the memorial ceremony and commemorate their anniversaries with your utmost sincerity. Serve your departed parents as if they were still alive.

(Di Zi GuiAt Home, Be Dutiful to Your Parents)

喪盡禮。祭盡誠。事死者。如事生。

(《弟子規》入則孝)

Di Zi Gui

Standards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home

弟子規》出則悌

Co-25

Older siblings should befriend the younger ones, younger siblings should respect and love the older ones. Siblings who keep harmonious relationships among themselves are being dutiful to their parents.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

兄道友。弟道恭。兄弟睦。孝在中。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-26

When siblings value their ties more than property and belongings, no resentment will grow among them.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

財物輕。怨何生。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-27

When siblings are careful with words and hold back hurtful comments, feelings of anger naturally die out.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

言語忍。忿自泯。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-28

Whether you are drinking, eating, walking, or sitting, let the elders go first; younger ones should follow.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

或飲食。或座走。長者先。幼者後。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-29

When an elder is asking for someone, get that person for him right away. If you can not find that person, immediately report back, and put yourself at the elder’s service instead.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

長呼人。即代叫。人不在。己即到。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-30

When you address an elder, do not call him by his given name. This is in accord with ancient Chinese etiquette.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

稱尊長。勿呼名。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-31

In front of an elder, do not show off.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

對尊長。勿見能。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-32

If you meet an elder you know on the street, promptly clasp your hands and greet him with a bow. If he dose not speak to you, step back and respectfully stand aside.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

路遇長。疾趨揖。長無言。退恭立。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-33

Should you be riding on a horse and you spot an elder you know walking, you should dismount and pay respect to the elder. If you are riding in a carriage, you should stop, get out of the carriage, and ask if you can give him a ride. If you meet an elder passing by, you should stand aside and wait respectfully; do not leave until you can no longer see him.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

騎下馬。乘下車。過猶待。百步餘。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-34

When an elder is standing, do not sit. After an elder sits down, sit only when you are told to do so.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

長者立。幼勿坐。長者坐。命乃坐。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-35

Before an elder, speak softly. But if your voice is too low and hard to hear, it is not appropriate.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

尊長前。聲要低。低不聞。卻非宜。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-36

When meeting an elder, walk briskly towards him; when leaving, do not exit in haste. When answering a question, look at the person who is asking you the question.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

進必趨。退必遲。問起對。視勿移。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Co-37

Serve your uncles as if you are serving your parents. Treat your cousins as if they are your own siblings.

(Di Zi GuiStandards for a Younger Brother When Away from Home )

事諸父。如事父。事諸兄。如事兄。

(《弟子規》出則弟)

Di Zi Gui

Be Cautious in Your Daily Life

弟子規》謹

Co-38

Get up in the morning before your parents; at night, go to bed only after they have gone to sleep. When you realize that time is passing you by and can not be turned back, and that you are getting older year by year, you will especially treasure the present moment.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

朝起早。夜眠遲。老易至。惜此時。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-39

When you get up in the morning, wash your face and brush your teeth.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

晨必盥。兼漱口。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-40

After using the toilet, always wash your hands.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

便溺回。輒淨手。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-41

You must wear your hat straight, and make sure the hooks of your clothes are tied. Make sure socks and shoes are worn neatly and correctly.  

        (Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

冠必正。紐必結。襪與履。俱緊切。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-42

Place your hat and clothes away in their proper places. Do not carelessly throw your clothes around, for that will get them dirty.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

置冠服。有定位。勿亂頓。致污穢。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-43

It is more important that your clothes are clean, rather than how extravagant they are. When with an elder or people of importance, wear what is suitable for your station. At home, wear clothes according to your family traditions and customs.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

衣貴潔。不貴華。上循分。下稱家。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-44

When it comes to eating and drinking, do not pick and choose your food. Eat only the right amount; do not over eat.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

對飲食。勿揀擇。食適可。勿過則。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-45

You are still too young, do not drink alcohol. When you are drunk, your behavior will turn ugly.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

年方少。勿飲酒。飲酒醉。最為醜。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-46

Walk composed, with light and even steps. Stand up straight and tall.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

步從容。立端正。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-47

Your bows should be deep, with hands held in front and arms rounded. Always pay your respect with reverence.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

揖深圓。拜恭敬。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-48

Do not step on doorsills. Do not stand learning on one leg. Do not sit with your legs apart or sprawled out. Do not rock the lower part of your body while sitting down.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

勿踐閾。勿跛倚。勿箕踞。勿搖髀。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-49

Lift the curtain slowly, do not make a sound.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

緩揭簾。勿有聲。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-50

Leave yourself room when you turn to make sure you do not bump into a corner.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

寬轉彎。勿觸棱。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-51

Hold carefully empty containers as if they were full.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

執虛器。如執盈。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-52

Enter empty rooms as if they were occupied.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

入虛室。如有人。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-53

Avoid doing things in a hurry, as doing things in haste will lead to many mistakes.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

事勿忙。忙多錯。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-54

Do not be afraid of difficult tasks, but do not become careless when a job is too easy.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

勿畏難。勿輕略。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-55

Keep away from rowdy places.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

鬥鬧場。絕勿近。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-56

Do not ask about things that are abnormal or unusual.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

邪僻事。絕勿問。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-57

When you are about to enter a main entrance, ask if someone is inside.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

將入門。問孰存。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-58

Before entering a room, make yourself heard, so that those inside know someone is approaching.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

將上堂。聲必揚。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-59

If someone asks who you are, give your name. To answer “it is me” or “Me” is not clear.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

人問誰。對以名。吾與我。不分明。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-60

Before borrowing things from others, you must ask for permission. If you do not ask, it is stealing.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

人物。須明求。倘不問。即為偷。

(《弟子規》謹)

Co-61

When borrowing things from others, return them promptly. Later on, when you have an urgent need, you will not have a problem borrowing from them again.

(Di Zi GuiBe Cautious in Your Daily Life )

借人物。及時還。後有急。借不難。

(《弟子規》謹)

Di Zi Gui

Be Trustworthy

弟子規》信

Co-62

When you speak, honesty is important. Deceitful words and lies are not allowed.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

凡出言。信為先。詐與妄。奚可焉。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-63

Rather than talking too much, it is better to speak less. Speak the truth, do not twist the facts.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

話說多。不如少。惟其是。勿佞巧。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-64

Cunning words, foul language, and bad habits must be avoided at all costs.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

奸巧語。穢污詞。市井氣。切戒之。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-65

What you have not seen with your own eyes, do not readily tell to others. What you do not know for sure, do not readily pass on to others.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

見未真。勿輕言。知未的。勿輕傳。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-66

When asked to do something that is inappropriate or bad, do not promise lightly. If you do, you will be wrong either way.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

事非宜。勿輕諾。茍輕諾。進退錯。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-67

When speaking, make the words clear and to the point. Do not talk too fast or mumble.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

凡道字。重且舒。勿急疾。勿模糊。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-68

Some like to talk about the good points of others, while some like to talk about the faults of others. If it is none of your business, do not get involved.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

彼說長。此說短。不關己。莫閒管。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-69

When you see others do good deeds, think about following their example. Even though your own achievements are still far behind those of others, you are getting closer.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

見人善。即思齊。縱去遠。以漸躋。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-70

When you see others do wrong, immediately reflect upon yourself. If you have made the same mistake, correct it. If not, be extra cautious not to make the same mistake.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

見人惡。即內省。有則改。無加警。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-71

When your morals, conduct, knowledge, and skills are not as good as others, you should encourage yourself to be better.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

唯德學。唯才藝。不如人。當自礪。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-72

If the clothes you wear, and the food you eat and drink are not as good as others, do not be ashamed.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

若衣服。若飲食。不如人。勿生慼。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-73

If criticism makes you angry and compliments make you happy, bad company will come your way and good friends will shy away.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

聞過怒。聞譽樂。損友來。益友卻。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-74

If you are uneasy about compliments and appreciative of criticism, sincere and understanding virtuous people will gradually be close to you.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

聞譽恐。聞過欣。直諒士。漸相親。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-75

If your mistake is not done on purpose, if is only an error. If it is done on purpose, it is evil.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

無心非。名為錯。有心非。名為惡。

(《弟子規》信)

Co-76

If you correct your mistake and do not repeat it, you no longer have the mistake. If you try to cover it up, you will be doubly wrong.

(Di Zi GuiBe Trustworthy)

過能改。歸於無。倘飾。增一辜。

(《弟子規》信)

Di Zi Gui

Love All Equally

弟子規汎愛眾

Co-77

Human beings, regardless of nationality, race, or religion – everyone – should be loved equally. We are all sheltered by the same sky and we all live on the same planet Earth.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

凡是人。皆需愛。天同覆。地同載。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-78

A person of high ideals and morals is highly respected. What people value is not based on outside appearance.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

行高者。名自高。人所重。非貌高。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-79

A person’s outstanding ability will naturally honor him with a good reputation. Admiration from others does not come from boasting or praising oneself.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

才大者。望自大。人所服。非言大。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-80

If you are a very capable person, use your abilities for the benefit of others. Other people’s competence should not be slandered.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

己有能。勿自私。人所能。勿輕訾。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-81

Do not flatter the rich.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

勿諂富。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-82

Do not despise the poor.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

勿驕貧。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-83

Do not ignore old friends.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

勿厭故。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-84

Do not take delight in new friends.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

勿喜新。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-85

When a person is busy, do not bother him with matters.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

人不閒。勿事擾。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-86

When a person’s mind is not at peace, do not bother him with words.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

人不安。勿話擾。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-87

If a person has a shortcoming, do not expose it.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

人有短。切莫揭。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-88

If a person has a secret, do not tell others.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

人有私。切莫說。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-89

Praising the goodness of others is a good deed in itself. When people approve of and praise you, you should feel encouraged and try even harder.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

道人善。即是善。人知之。愈思勉。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-90

Spreading rumors about the wrongdoings of others is a wrongdoing in itself. When the harm done has reached the extreme, misfortunes will surely follow.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

揚人惡。即是惡。疾之甚。禍且作。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-91

When encouraging each other to do good, the virtues of both are built up.                      

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

善相勸。德皆建。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-92

If you do not tell others of their faults, you will both be wrong.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

過不規。道兩虧。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-93

Whether you take or give, you need to know the difference between the two. It is better to give more and take less.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

凡與取。貴分曉。與宜多。取宜少。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-94

What you ask others to do, first ask yourself if you will do it. If it is not something you will do, ask not others to do it.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

將加人。先問己。己不欲。即速已。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-95

You must repay the kindness of others and let go of your resentments. Spend less time holding grudges and more time paying back the kindness of others.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

恩欲報。怨欲忘。報怨短。報恩長。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-96

When you are directing maids and servants, you should be respectable and dignified. Even though you are respectable and dignified, treat them kindly and generously.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

待婢僕。身貴端。雖貴端。慈而寬。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Co-97

If you use your influence to make them submissive, their hearts will never be with you. If you can convince them with sound reasoning, they will then have nothing more to say.

(Di Zi GuiLove All Equally)

勢服人。心不然。理服人。方無言。

(《弟子規》汎愛眾)

Di Zi Gui

Be Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion

弟子規》親仁

Co-98

We are all human, but we are not the same. Most of us are ordinary; only a very few have great virtues and high moral principles.

(Di Zi GuiBe Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion)

同是人。類不齊。流俗眾。仁者希。

(《弟子規》親仁)

Co-99

A truly virtuous person is greatly respected by others. He will not be afraid to speak the truth and he will not fawn on others.

(Di Zi GuiBe Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion)

果仁者。人多畏。言不諱。色不媚。

(《弟子規》親仁)

Co-100

If you are close to and learn from people of great virtue and compassion, you will benefit immediately. Your virtues will grow daily and your wrongdoings will lessen day by day.

(Di Zi GuiBe Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion)

能親仁。無限好。徳日進。過日少。       

(《弟子規》親仁)

Co-101

If you are not close to and learn from people of great virtue, you will suffer a great loss. People without virtue will get close to you and nothing you do will succeed.

(Di Zi GuiBe Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion)

不親仁。無限害。小人進。百事壞。

(《弟子規》親仁)

Di Zi Gui

After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life

弟子規》餘力學文

Co-102

If you do not actively make use of what you have learned, but continue to study on the surface, your knowledge is increasing but it is only superficial. What kind of person will you be?

(Di Zi GuiAfter All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

不力行。但學文。長浮華。成何人。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-103

If you do apply your knowledge diligently, but stop studying, you will only do things based on your own opinion, thinking it is correct. In fact, what you know is not the truth.

(Di Zi GuiAfter All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

但力行。不學文。任己見。昧理真。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-104

There are methods to study correctly. They involve concentration in three areas: your mind, your eyes, and your mouth. To believe in what you read is equally important.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

讀書法。有三到。心眼口。信皆要。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-105

When you begin to read a book, do not think about another. If you have not completed the book, do not start another.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

方讀此。勿慕彼。此勿終。彼勿起。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-106

Give yourself lots of time to study, and study hard. Given time and effort, you will thoroughly understand.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

寬為限。緊用功。工夫到。滯塞通。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-107

If you have a question, make a note of it. Ask the person who has the knowledge for the right answer.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

心有疑。隨札記。就人問。求確義。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-108

Keep the room neat, your walls uncluttered and clean, your desk tidy and your brush and inkstone properly placed.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

房室清。牆壁淨。几案潔。筆硯正。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-109

If your ink block is ground unevenly, it shows you have a poor state of mind. When words are written carelessly, showing no respect, it shows your state of mind has not been well.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

墨磨偏。心不端。字不敬。心先病。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-110

The books should be classified, placed on the book shelves, and in their proper places. After you finish reading a book, put it back in its right place.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

列典籍。有定處。讀看畢。還原處。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-111

Even though you are in a hurry, neatly roll up.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

雖有急。卷束齊。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-112

Any missing or damaged pages are to be repaired.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

有缺壞。就補之。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-113

If it is not a book on the teachings of the saints and sages, it should be discarded and not even be looked at. These other books can block your intelligence and wisdom and will undermine your aspirations and sense of direction.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

非聖書。屏勿視。蔽聰明。壞心志。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

Co-114

Neither be harsh on yourself, nor give up on yourself. To be a person of high ideals, moral standards and virtue is something we can all attain in time.

(Di Zi Gui After All the Above are Accomplished, Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve your Cultural and Spiritual Life)

勿自暴。勿自棄。聖與賢。可馴致。

(《弟子規》餘力學文)

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

 Chapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

Co-115

The ancient kings had a perfect virtue and all-embracing rule of conduct, through which they were in accord with all under heaven. By the practice of it the people were brought to live in peace and harmony, and there was no ill-will between superiors and inferiors.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

先王有至德要道,以順天下,民用和睦,上下無怨。

(《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

Co-116

……filial piety is the root of (all) virtue, and (the stem) out of which grows (all moral) teaching.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

孝,德之本也,教之所由生也。 

(《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

Co-117

Our bodies—to every hair and bit of skin—are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也。

(《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

Co-118

When we have established our character by the practice of the (filial) course, so as to make our name famous in future ages and thereby glorify our parents, this is the end of filial piety.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

立身行道,揚名於後世,以顯父母,孝之終也。

(《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

Co-119

It commences with the service of parents; it proceeds to the service of the ruler; it is completed by the establishment of character.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter I: The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise

孝,始於事親,中於事君,終於立身。

(《孝經》第一 開宗明義章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter II: The King

《孝經》第二 天子章

Co-120

He who loves his parents does not dare to hate other people, and he who honours his parents does not dare to despise others.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter II: The King

愛親者,不敢惡於人。敬親者,不敢慢於人。

(《孝經》第二 天子章

Co-121

Completely fulfil his duty of loving and honouring his parents; extend the virtue education to all people, act as a role model for the rest of the world; this is the filial piety of the king.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter II: The King

愛敬盡於事親,而德教加於百姓,刑于四海,蓋天子之孝也。

(《孝經》第二 天子章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter III: Filial Piety in the Princes of States

《孝經》三 諸侯

Co-122

Above others, and yet free from pride, they dwell on high, without peril. Adhering to economy and carefully observant of the rules and laws, they are full, without overflowing.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter III: The Overlords of the States

在上不驕,高而不危。

(《孝經》第三 諸侯章

Co-123

To dwell on high without peril is the way long to preserve nobility; to be full without overflowing is the way long to preserve riches.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter III: The Overlords of the States

高而不危,所以長守貴也。滿而不溢,所以長守富也。

(《孝經》第三 諸侯章

Co-124

When they are able to preserve their nobility and wealth, they perpetuate the security of their state, and bring harmony to the people. This is filial piety of the overlords of the states.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter III: The Overlords of the States

富貴不離其身,然後能保其社稷,而和其民人。

(《孝經》第三 諸侯章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter IV: Filial Piety in High Ministers and Great Officers

《孝經》四 卿大夫

Co-125

Thus none of their words being contrary to those sanctions, and none of their actions contrary to the (right) way, from their mouths there comes no exceptionable speech, and in their conduct there are found no exceptionable actions.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IV: Filial Piety in High Ministers and Great Officers

非法不言,非道不行。口無擇言,身無擇行。

(《孝經》第四 卿大夫章

Co-126

So even if their words were to pervade the entire earth, no errors would be found in them; even if their actions were to fill the entire earth, nothing contemptible would be found in them.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IV: Filial Piety in High Ministers and Great Officers

言滿天下,無口過。行滿天下,無怨惡。

(《孝經》第四 卿大夫章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter V: Filial Piety in Inferior Officers

《孝經》五 士

Co-127

Therefore when they serve their ruler with filial piety, they are loyal; when they serve their superiors with reverence, they are obedient. Not failing in this loyalty and obedience in serving those above them, they are then able to preserve their emoluments and positions, and to maintain their sacrifices. This is the filial piety of inferior officers.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter V: Filial Piety in Inferior Officers

以孝事君,則忠;以敬事長,則順。忠順不失,以事其上,然後能保其祿位,而守其祭祀,蓋士之孝也。

(《孝經》第五 士章 

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter VI: Filial Piety in the Common People

《孝經》六 庶人

Co-128

They follow the course of heaven (in the revolving seasons); they distinguish the advantages afforded by (different) soils; they are careful of their conduct and economical in their expenditure—in order to nourish their parents. This is the filial piety of the common people.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VI: Filial Piety in the Common People

用天之道,分地之利,謹身節用,以養父母,此庶人之孝也。

(《孝經》第六 庶人章

Co-129

Filial piety, the duty of every person from the king to the commoner, is the supreme and eternal principle of life and morality. There has never been anyone who is willing to fulfil this duty yet fails to do so.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VI: Filial Piety in the Common People

自天子至於庶人,孝無終始,而患不及者,未之有也。

(《孝經》第六 庶人章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

《孝經》七 三才

Co-130

Filial piety is the constant (method) of Heaven, the righteousness of Earth, and the practical duty of Man.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

夫孝,天之經也,地之義也,民之行也。

(《孝經》第七 三才章

Co-131

The ancient kings set the moral standard and acted as role models by loving everyone without discrimination, so the people did not dare to forsake or neglect their parents.  

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

先之以博愛,而民莫遺其親。

(《孝經》第七 三才章

Co-132

They explained to the people the truths about virtue and righteousness, and so people put them into practice.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

陳之於德義,而民興行

(《孝經》第七 三才章

Co-133

They were most respectful and courteous to the people, so there were no rivalry or competition among them.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

先之以敬讓,而民不爭。

(《孝經》第七 三才章

Co-134

They guided the people with moral precepts and with the help of the proprieties and arts, so people lived in peace and harmony.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

導之以禮樂,而民和睦。

(《孝經》第七 三才章

Co-135

They demonstrated to people behaviours that are pleasant or detestable , so people understood what should be prohibited.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VII: Filial Piety in Relation to the Three Powers

示之以好惡,而民知禁。

(《孝經》第七 三才章 

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter VIII: Governance by Filial Piety

《孝經》八 孝治

Co-136

When the ancient kings, in their great wisdom, governed the country by filial piety, they did not dare to look down upon even the officials of the small states, let alone the aristocrats (the dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons) of the larger states! That was why the state overlords were willing and glad to assist the king in serving his ancestors and perpetuating his dynasty.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VIII: Governance by Filial Piety

明王之以孝治天下也,不敢遺小國之臣,而況於公侯伯子男乎?故得萬國之懽心,以事其先王。

(《孝經》第八 孝治章

Co-137

The rulers of states did not dare to slight wifeless men and widows. How much less would they slight their officers and the people! Thus it was that they got all their people with joyful hearts (to assist them) in serving the rulers, their predecessors.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VIII: Governance by Filial Piety

治國者,不敢侮於鰥寡,而況於士民乎?故得百姓之懽心,以事其先君。

(《孝經》第八 孝治章

Co-138

The heads of clans did not dare to slight their servants and concubines. How much less would they slight their wives and sons! Thus it was that they got their men with joyful hearts (to assist them) in the service of their parents.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter VIII: Governance by Filial Piety

治家者,不敢失於臣妾,而況於妻子乎?故得人之懽心,以事其親,

(《孝經》第八 孝治章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter IX: Governance of the Sages

《孝經》九 聖治

Co-139

Of all (creatures with their different) natures produced by Heaven and Earth, man is the noblest. Of all the actions of man there is none greater than filial piety.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

天地之性,人為貴。人之行,莫大於孝。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

Co-140

Out of the feeling of reverence for their parents, the sages taught the duty of respect for others; out of the feeling of affection for parents, they impart the teaching of love for others. Thus, the teachings of the sages were accomplished without being too regimental, and their government was efficient without being overly stringent.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

聖人因嚴以教敬,因親以教愛。聖人之教,不肅而成;其政,不嚴而治。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

Co-141

He who loves other people but loves not his parents is defying virtue.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

不愛其親而愛他人者,謂之悖德。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

Co-142

He who honours other people but honours not his parents is defying proprieties.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

不敬其親而敬他人者,謂之悖禮。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

Co-143

He speaks, having thought whether the words should be spoken; he acts, having thought whether his actions are sure to give pleasure. His virtue and righteousness are such as will be honored; what he initiates and does is fit to be imitated; his deportment is worthy of contemplation; his movements in advancing or retiring are all according to the proper rule. In this way does he present himself to the people.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

言思可道,行思可樂,德義可尊,作事可法,容止可觀,進退可度,以臨其民。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

Co-144

[The people] who both revere and love him, imitate and become like him. Thus he is able to make his teaching of virtue successful, and his government and orders to be carried into effect.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter IX: Governance of the Sages

其民畏而愛之,則而象之,故能成其德教,而行其政令。

(《孝經》第九 聖治章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter X: An Orderly Description of the Acts of Filial Piety

《孝經》十 紀孝行

Co-145

In his general conduct to them, he manifests the utmost reverence. In his nourishing of them, his endeavor is to give them the utmost pleasure. When they are ill, he feels the greatest anxiety. In mourning for them (dead), he exhibits every demonstration of grief. In sacrificing to them, he displays the utmost solemnity. When a son is complete in these five things, (he may be pronounced) able to serve his parents.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter X: An Orderly Description of the Acts of Filial Piety

居則致其敬,養則致其樂,病則致其憂,喪則致其哀,祭則致其嚴。五者備矣,然後能事親。

(《孝經》第十 紀孝行章

Co-146

He who (thus) serves his parents, in a high situation will be free from pride, in a low situation will be free from insubordination, and among his equals will not be quarrelsome.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter X: An Orderly Description of the Acts of Filial Piety

事親者,居上不驕,為下不亂,在醜不爭。

(《孝經》第十 紀孝行章

Co-147

In a high situation pride leads to ruin; in a low situation insubordination leads to punishment; among equals quarrelsomeness leads to the wielding of weapons. If those three things be not put away, though a son every day contributes beef, mutton, and pork to nourish his parents, he is not filial.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter X: An Orderly Description of the Acts of Filial Piety

居上而驕則亡,為下而亂則刑,在醜而爭則兵。三者不除,雖日用三牲之養,猶為不孝也。

(《孝經》第十 紀孝行章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XI: Filial Piety in Relation to the Five Punishments

《孝經》十一 五刑

Co-148

Those who threaten the lords have no regard for their superiors, those who vilify the sages have no regard for the law, and those who oppose filial piety have no regard for their parents—these are the root causes of anarchy.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XI: Filial Piety in Relation to the Five Punishments

要君者無上,非聖人者無法,非孝者無親,此大亂之道也。

(《孝經》第十一 五刑章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XII: Amplification of "The All-embracing Rule of Conduct

《孝經》十二 廣要道

Co-149

For teaching the people to be affectionate and loving, there is nothing better than filial piety. For teaching them (the observance of) propriety and submissiveness, there is nothing better than fraternal duty. For changing their manners and altering their customs, there is nothing better than music. For securing the repose of superiors and the good order of the people, there is nothing better than the rules of propriety.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XII: Amplification of "The All-embracing Rule of Conduct

教民親愛,莫善於孝。教民禮順,莫善於悌。移風易俗,莫善於樂。安上治民,莫善於禮。

(《孝經》第十二 廣要道章

Co-150

The rules of propriety are simply (the development of) the principle of reverence.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XII: Amplification of "The All-embracing Rule of Conduct

禮者,敬而已矣。

(《孝經》第十二 廣要道章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XIII: Amplification of the Perfect Virtue in Chapter I

《孝經》十三 廣至德

Co-151

The teaching of filial piety by the superior man does not require that he should go to family after family and daily see the members of each. His teaching of filial piety is a tribute of reverence to all the fathers under heaven. His teaching of fraternal submission is a tribute of reverence to all the elder brothers under heaven. His teaching of the duty of a subject is a tribute of reverence to all the rulers under heaven.

(《The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XIII: Amplification of the Perfect Virtue in Chapter I

教以孝,所以敬天下之為人父者也。教以悌,所以敬天下之為人兄者也。教以臣,所以敬天下之為人君者也。

(《孝經》第十三 廣至德章 

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XIV: Amplification of "Making our Name Famous" in Chapter I

《孝經》十四 廣揚名

Co-152

The filial piety with which the superior man serves his parents may be transferred as loyalty to the ruler.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XIV: Amplification of "Making our Name Famous" in Chapter I)

君子之事親孝,故忠可移於君。

(《孝經》第十四 廣揚名章

Co-153

The fraternal duty with which he serves his elder brother may be transferred as submissive deference to elders.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XIV: Amplification of "Making our Name Famous" in Chapter I)

事兄悌,故順可移於長。

(《孝經》第十四 廣揚名章

Co-154

His regulation of his family may be transferred as good government in any official position.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XIV: Amplification of "Making our Name Famous" in Chapter I)

居家理,故治可移於官。

(《孝經》第十四 廣揚名章

Co-155

Therefore, when his conduct is thus successful in his inner (private) circle, his name will be established (and transmitted) to future generations.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XIV: Amplification of "Making our Name Famous" in Chapter I)

行成於內,而名立於後世。

(《孝經》第十四 廣揚名章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XV: Filial Piety in Relation to Reproof and Remonstrance

《孝經》十五 諫諍

Co-156

And the father who had a son that would remonstrate with him would not sink into the gulf of unrighteous deeds.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XV: Filial Piety in Relation to Reproof and Remonstrance)

父有爭子,則身不陷於不義。

(《孝經》第十五 諫諍章

Co-157

Therefore when a case of unrighteous conduct is concerned, a son must by no means keep from remonstrating with his father, nor a minister from remonstrating with his ruler.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XV: Filial Piety in Relation to Reproof and Remonstrance)

當不義,則子不可以不爭於父,臣不可以不爭於君。

(《孝經》第十五 諫諍章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XVI: The Influence of Filial Piety and the Response to It

《孝經》十六 感應

Co-158

Even the king has others to whom he must give honour, namely his parents, and those to whom he must give precedence, namely his elder brothers. When he offers sacrifices to his ancestors, he gives them the highest reverence to show that he has not neglected his parents. He cultivates his moral character and guards his conduct, lest he might disgrace his royal ancestors.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XVI: The Influence of Filial Piety and the Response to It)

雖天子,必有尊也,言有父也。必有先也,言有兄也。宗廟致敬,不忘親也。脩身慎行,恐辱先也。

(《孝經》第十六 感應章

Co-159

Perfect filial piety and fraternal duty reach to (and move) the spiritual intelligences and diffuse their light on all within the four seas. They penetrate everywhere.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XVI: The Influence of Filial Piety and the Response to It)

孝悌之至,通於神明,光于四海,無所不通。

(《孝經》第十六 感應章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XVII: The Service of the Ruler

《孝經》十七 事君

Co-160

The superior man serves his ruler in such a way that, when at court in his presence, his thought is how to discharge his loyal duty to the utmost, and when he retires from it, his thought is how to amend his errors. He carries out with deference the measures springing from his excellent qualities and rectifies him (only) to save him from what are evil. Hence, as the superior and inferior, they are able to have affection for each other.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XVII: The Service of the Ruler)

君子之事上也,進思盡忠,退思補過,將順其美,匡救其惡,故上下能相親也。

(《孝經》第十七 事君章

The Doctrine of Filial Piety

Chapter XVIII: Filial Piety in Mourning for Parents

《孝經》十八 喪親

Co-161

The services of love and reverence to parents when alive, and those of grief and sorrow to them when dead: these completely discharge the fundamental duty of living men. The righteous claims of life and death are all satisfied, and the filial sons service of his parents is completed.

(The Doctrine of Filial PietyChapter XVIII: Filial Piety in Mourning for Parents)

生事愛敬,死事哀慼,生民之本盡矣,死生之義備矣,孝子之事親終矣。

(《孝經》第十八 喪親章


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